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What is the best explanation why India has the world’s ninth-biggest economy but ranks so low in how well off its people are?

A India has a lot of people.

India produces a large number of goods and services (GDP), but with nearly 1 billion people, the average amount of goods and services per person (per capita GDP) is relatively small. Wages have no influence on GDP, which only measures the value of goods and services produced. People who work long hours and people with a good education tend to produce more goods and services, thereby increasing GDP, but these factors play no role in explaining the gap between the ranking of India’s GDP and the ranking of its per capita GDP.