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Until the Industrial Revolution, the peppered moth was mainly white with black spots. As London’s air became thick with soot from factories, the once-white trees the moths used to live on became blacker. Birds were now able to spot and eat the moths that were white on the black trees. However, some moths had more black spots than others, making them harder for the birds to spot than their whiter relatives. These moths survived and passed the genetic trait of being darker to their offspring. This passage describes what theory?

A Theory of natural selection

The moths that were darker had a better chance of surviving because they could hide from the birds. The theory of natural selection explains how organisms adapt to their environment to better survive. The theory of relativity is about gravity, and the theory of plate tectonics is how the earth is made of plates that move. The theory of homologous structures is not a theory but the concept of two similar structures in different animals.